We are one of the world’s leading producers of steel pipes for the oil and gas industry, a global company with extensive network of production facilities, sales companies and representative offices.
The principal activities of our company are the production and distribution of seamless and welded pipes, including pipes with the entire range of premium connections backed by extensive technical support.
Our plants produce almost the entire range of existing pipes used in the oil-and-gas sector, the chemical and petrochemical industries, energy and machine-building, construction and municipal housing, shipbuilding, aviation and aerospace, and agriculture.
We created an up-to date technological complex based on advanced scientific research, manufacturing high-quality competitive products.
Our operations are geographically diversified with manufacturing facilities in Russia, the United States, Canada, Romania, Kazakhstan and the Sultanate of Oman. We operate R&D centers in Russia and the U.S. Our global market presence is supported by a wide distribution network. In 2017, we delivered 64% of our tubular products to our customers located in Russia and 21% in North America. We estimate our share on global market of seamless OCTG at around 15%.
We are the largest exporter of pipes in Russia. Exports of pipes produced by our Russian plants accounted for 13% of our total sales in 2017.
In 2017, we sold 3,781 thousand tonnes of steel pipes. Seamless pipes comprised 71% of our sales volumes. Sales of seamless and welded OCTG reached 1,755 thousand tonnes, a 23% year-on-year increase, sales of LDP fell by 48% year-on-year to 267 thousand tonnes.
In 2017, our total consolidated revenue increased by 32% to $4,394 million as compared to 2016. Adjusted EBITDA1 (Adjusted EBITDA - See “Selected financial data”) grew to $605 million as compared to $530 million in the previous year. Adjusted EBITDA margin decreased to 14% compared to 16% in 2016.
The Russian pipe market grew by 1% year-on-year driven by high demand for OCTG and industrial pipe.
The market growth was partially offset by weak LDP demand in 1H2017, while in 2H 2017 LDP demand improved. OCTG consumption grew by 13% compared to 2016, supported by higher demand and growing drilling activity in Russia, which increased by 12% year-on-year, with the share of horizontal drilling being up to 41% in 2017 from 35% in 2016.
In the US, the average number of rigs in 2017 grew by 73% compared to 2016 (Baker Hughes), following the recovery in oil prices. OCTG consumption increased 86% year-on-year (Preston Pipe Report). Average composite OCTG seamless and welded pipe prices increased by 22% and 30% respectively compared to 2016 (Pipe Logix).
In 2017, the European market saw a substantial increase in pipe demand from both US and domestic customers, which supported high production capacity utilization, encouraged new investments in the sector and drove selling prices up.
In February, we placed 138,888,888 of existing ordinary shares of PAO TMK in a secondary public offering.
In April, we shipped the first batch of casing pipe with TMK UP MAGNA premium threaded connections and GreenWell lubricant-free coating to LUKOIL. The pipes were successfully sunk at the Y. Kuvykin field in the Caspian Sea with TMK supervisors’ involvement. The shipment was a part of the comprehensive program to supply the entire casing, made of TMK’s premium casing pipe with GreenWell lubricant-free coating.
In April and June, we placed a 5 billion rouble 10-year bond with 9.75% coupon rate payable on a semi-annual basis and a 10 billion rouble 10-year bond with 9.35% coupon rate payable on a semi-annual basis.
In June, we entered into a long-term contracts with Rosneft for the supply of casing and tubing pipes. The formula pricing based contracts term is over 5 years. Supplies to Rosneft under this contracts started in 2H 2017. During the contract term the share of TMK products will be over 50% of Rosneft’s total casing and tubing pipe purchases.
On June 8, 2017, the general shareholders’ meeting approved dividends for 2016 in the amount of 2,025 billion Roubles ($36 million at the exchange rate at the date of approval) or 1.96 Roubles per share ($0.03 per share). The total dividends in respect of 2016, including interim, amounted to 4,03 billion Roubles ($67 million).
In June, we started the production of casing pipe made from the corrosion-resistant chromium-nickel alloy TMK-C. We developed TMK-C alloy to manufacture pipes used in well construction at oil and gas fields with particularly high hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) content and partial pressure. Previously, pipe from this type of alloy had only been produced abroad. The first batch of 110 grade TMK-C pipe with TMK UP PF highly gas-tight premium threaded connections was produced at TAGMET and shipped to LUKOIL.
In August, we started the production of casing pipe with unique TMK UP CENTUM threaded connection with 100% tension and compression efficiency. Currently we are the only manufacturer of pipes with such connections. The first batch of the new product was shipped to NOVATEK’s Arctic LNG 2 project. The pipes were successfully sunk at the Salmanovskoye (Utrenneye) oil and gas condensate field with the involvement of TMK supervisors.
In October, we entered into a long-term strategic cooperation agreement with Gazprom burenie. We became key supplier of drill pipes used by Gazprom burenie for drilling across Russia, including fields in Siberia, Far East and Yamal. The formula pricing based agreement term is until 2022.
In November, we commenced production of casing pipes with the unique TMK UP ULTRA GX premium threaded connection, which allows to significantly increase the casing string safety in building directional wells. The first batch of the new product was shipped to Rosneft subsidiary Samaraneftegas.
In January 2018, we redeemed the loan participation notes in the total nominal value of $231 million. The $500 million eurobonds with a coupon rate of 7.75% and a 7-year maturity were issued by TMK Capital SA on January 27, 2011. Part of the issue in the amount of $269 million was repurchased earlier under tender offers and cancelled.
Our operating segments reflect TMK’s management structure and the way financial information is regularly reviewed.
In 2017, our sales volumes and key financial indicators increased year-on-year, generally reflecting improved results of the American division.
In 2017, our consolidated revenue increased by $1,056 million or 32%.A positive currency translation effect1 was $389 million. Excluding this effect our revenue increased by $666 million year-on-year.
Net operating expenses were higher by $107 million or 24% primarily as a result of a negative currency translation effect and higher other operating expenses. The share of net operating expenses, expressed as a percentage of revenue, was 12% compared to 13% in 2016.
In 2017, adjusted EBITDA increased by $75 million or 14% as compared to previous year. Adjusted EBITDA margin was 14% compared to 16% in 2016.
We tested our assets for impairment during the year. As at December 31, 2017, we recognised the impairment loss of $7 million compared to $3 million loss in 2016. The impairment loss in 2017 was $24 million and the reversal of impairment was $16 million.
In 2017, we recorded a foreign exchange gain in the amount of $28 million as compared to a $130 million gain in 2016.
In addition, we recognised a foreign exchange gain from exchange rate fluctuations in the amount of $14 million (net of income tax) in 2017 as compared to a $69 million gain (net of income tax) in 2016 in the statement of other comprehensive income. The amount in the statement of comprehensive income represents the effective portion of foreign exchange gains or losses on our hedging instruments.
Net finance costs increased by $6 million or 2%. The weighted average nominal interest rate was 8.16% as of 31 December 2017 as compared to 9.03% as of 31 December 2016.
The following table illustrates our cash flows:
Net cash flows provided by operating activities decreased by $164 million to $312 million from $476 million in the previous year. In 2017, working capital increased by $252 million compared to a $13 million increase in 2016. The increase was mainly a result of growth in inventories and trade receivables.
Net proceeds of borrowings amounted to $318 million as compared to $53 million of net repayment in 2016. Decline in other investments was a result of disposal of subsidiaries in 2016. Cash and cash equivalents at the end of the period amounted to $491 million as compared to $277 million at the end of 2016.
Our overall financial debt increased from $2,836 million as of 31 December 2016 to $3,239 million as of 31 December 2017.Net proceeds of borrowings in 2017 was $318 million.
The appreciation of the Rouble against the U.S. dollar also resulted in our debt increase. Our net debt amounted to $2,688 million as compared to $2,479 million as of 31 December 2016.
As of 31 December 2017, our debt portfolio comprised diversified debt instruments, including bank loans, bonds and other credit facilities. As of 31 December 2017, the U.S. dollar-denominated portion of our debt represented 46%, Rouble-denominated portion of debt represented 51%, euro-denominated portion of debt represented 2% of our total debt.
The share of our short-term debt increased to 18% as of 31 December 2017 compared to 9% as of 31 December 2016. As of 31 December 2017, our debt portfolio comprised fixed and floating interest rate debt facilities. Borrowings with a floating interest rate represented $160 million or 5% of total debt, and borrowings with a fixed interest rate represented $3,105 million or 95% of our total debt.
As of 31 December of 2017, our weighted average nominal interest rate was 8.16%, which was an 86 basis point decrease compared to 31 December 2016.
Our most significant credit facilities as of 31 December 2017 were as follows:
Reconciliation of income before tax to Adjusted EBITDA for the twelve months ended:
Adjusted EBITDA is not a measure of our operating performance under IFRS and should not be considered as an alternative to gross profit, net profit or any other performance measures derived in accordance with IFRS or as an alternative to cash flow from operating activities or as a measure of our liquidity.
In particular, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered to be a measure of discretionary cash available to invest in our growth. Adjusted EBITDA has limitations as an analytical tool.
Potential investors should not consider it in isolation, or as a substitute for analysis of our operating results as reported under IFRS.
Net debt has been calculated as of the dates indicated:
Net Debt is not a measure under IFRS, and it should not be considered to be an alternative to other measures of financial position. Other companies in the pipe industry may calculate Net Debt differently and therefore comparability may be limited.
Net Debt is a measure of our operating performance that is not required by, or presented in accordance with, IFRS. Although Net Debt is a non IFRS measure, it is widely used to assess liquidity and the adequacy of a company’s financial structure. Management believes Net Debt provides an accurate indicator of our ability to meet our financial obligations, represented by gross debt, from available cash. Net Debt demonstrates investors the trend in our net financial position over the periods presented.
The oil and gas industry is the principal consumer of steel pipe products worldwide and accounts for most of our sales, in particular sales of OCTG, line pipe and large-diameter pipe. In 2017, sales volumes of pipes used in oil and gas industry accounted for approximately 77% of our tubular products.
The oil and gas industry has historically been volatile and downturns in the oil and gas markets can adversely affect demand for our products, which largely depends on the number of oil and gas wells being drilled, completed and reworked, the depth and drilling conditions of wells and the construction of oil and gas pipelines. The level of such industry specific activities in turn depends on the level of capital spending by major oil and gas companies. The level of investment activities of oil and gas companies, which is largely driven by prevailing prices for oil and natural gas and their stability, significantly affects the level of consumption of our products.
A decline in oil and gas exploration, drilling and production activities in Russia, the U.S., and more globally (including as a result of the volatility of oil and natural gas prices), adversely affects our results of operations.
Thus, the decline in oil and gas exploration, drilling and production activities, prices for energy commodities and other economic factors beyond our control could adversely affect our results of operations.
We require substantial quantities of raw materials to produce steel pipes. The principal raw materials used in production processes include scrap and ferroalloys for use in steelmaking operations, steel billets used for the production of seamless pipe and steel coils and plates for the production of welded pipe. The demand for the principal raw materials we utilize is generally correlated with macroeconomic fluctuations, which in turn are affected by global economic conditions.
Prices for raw materials and supplies have a key influence on our production costs and are one of the main factors affecting our results of operations. There are many factors which influence raw materials prices, including oil and gas prices, worldwide production capacity, capacity utilization rates, inflation, exchange rates, trade barriers and developments in steelmaking processes. In 2017, the cost of scrap metal in Russia in Rouble-terms increased on average by 28%, and the cost of coils increased by 10%. At the same time, we are negotiating new contract terms with our major clients based on pricing formulas, which secure us against growing raw materials prices. The share of raw materials’ and consumables’ costs in the total cost of production in 2017 was 64%. The increase in prices for scrap, coils and other raw materials, if not passed to customers can adversely affect our profit margins and results of operations.
Our plants also consume significant quantities of energy, particularly electricity and gas. In 2017, energy and utility costs comprised approximately 8% of our total cost of production. The prices for electricity for our plants increased by 9% in Rouble-terms compared to 2016, while the average prices for domestic natural gas for our plants increased by 2% in Rouble-terms. If we are required to pay higher prices for gas and electricity in the future, our costs will rise and this could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
As we focus on supplying primarily the oil and gas industry, our largest customers are oil and gas companies. In 2017, our five largest customers were Rosneft, Gazprom, Surgutneftegas, B&L PIPECO SERVICES and CTAP LLC, which together accounted for 37% of our total sales volumes. The increased dependence of pipe sales on a single large customer bears the risk of an adverse effect on results of operations in the event that our relationship with any of these major customers deteriorates.
Our LDP business is largely dependent on one of our largest customers, Gazprom. In 2017, 57% of our LDP were sold for Gazprom projects. Increased competition in the supply of LDP or a change in relationships with Gazprom could negatively affect our competitive position in the large-diameter pipe market, resulting in decreased revenues from sales of these products and adversely affecting our business, financial position and results of operations. Additionally, large-diameter pipe business depends significantly upon the level of construction of new oil and gas pipelines in Russia and the CIS. The delay, cancellation or other changes in the scale or scope of significant pipeline projects, or the selection by the sponsors of such projects of other suppliers could have an adverse effect on our sales of LDP, and thus on the results of operations and financial position.
The global market for steel pipe products, particularly in the oil and gas sector, is highly competitive. In the Russian and CIS markets, we face competition primarily from ChTPZ, OMK, and the Ukrainian and Chinese pipe producers. After accession to the WTO Russia had adjusted its national legislation in full accordance with WTO rules and regulations, what allowed Russia along with the EEU (Eurasian Economic Union) to use WTO trade defense mechanism for the national market protection. To date, the following antidumping measures are effective in EEU: antidumping duties in the amount 18.9%-19.9% on imports of some types of steel tubes and pipes originated from Ukraine that were extended till 2021, anti-dumping duties ranging from 4.32% to 18.96% on imports of seamless corrosion resistant steel tubes and pipes originating from Ukraine, antidumping duties in the amount 19.15% on imports of cold-drawn stainless steel pipes originated from China and Malaysia, antidumping duties 12.23%-31% in respect to OGTG originated from China.
Outside Russia and the CIS, we compete against a limited number of premium-quality pipe products producers, including Tenaris, Vallourec, Sumitomo, Voestalpine and Chinese producers.
In the United States according to the DOC’s findings in August 2014 antidumping duties were imposed at the following levels in respect Oil Country Tubular Goods: India 2.05%-9.91%; Turkey 35.86%; South Korea 3.98%-6.495%, Taiwan 2.34%, Vietnam 25.18%-111.47%, the countervailing duties were 5.67%-19.57% for India and 2.39% for Turkey. The highest anti-dumping and countervailing duties were set in relation to OCTG originating from China that were 31.99%-137.62% and 12.26%-15.87% respectively
In October 2015, the anti-dumping and countervailing duties, in respect of welded API line pipe from South Korea and Turkey the final antidumping and countervailing duties were set at the following level: for Turkey 6.66%-22.95%, for Korea 2.53%-6.23%, the final countervailing duties for Turkey were set at level of 1.31%-152.20%, for Korea 0.28%-0.44% the Department of Commerce reached a negative determination in the countervailing duty investigation and therefore countervailing duties were not imposed .
Decisions and determinations subsequent to results of the investigations mentioned above are expected to ensure the alignment of conditions of the competition in the market of pipe products in Russia and America in 2017 and contribute to the improvement of market positions of Russian and American plants.
We may not be able to compete effectively against existing or potential producers and preserve our current share of the various geographical or product markets in which we operate. A failure to compete effectively in one or more of these markets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.
As of December 31, 2017, our total debt increased to $3,239 million as compared to $2,836 million at the end of 2016, partially due to the Rouble depreciation against the U.S. dollar. Net proceeds amounted to $318 million. As of December 31, 2017, our Net-Debt-to-EBITDA ratio was 4.44x.
Improving liquidity profile remains one of our priorities, and we continue to carry out measures to maintain sufficient liquidity and improve loan portfolio structure.
TMK maintains credit lines and other financial resources that can be incurred to meet short and long terms needs and for refinancing purposes.
As of 31 December 2017, we committed credit lines in Russian, European and American banks with the available limit of $812.3 million.
Nevertheless, there can be no assurance that our efforts to improve liquidity profile and reduce leverage will prove successful. The negative debt market reaction on deteriorating global political and financial situation, US and EU sanctions, economic situation in Russia may have an adverse impact on our ability to borrow in banks or capital markets, and may put pressure on our liquidity, significantly increase borrowing costs, temporary reduce the availability of credit lines or lead to and possibility to incur financing on acceptable terms.
Certain amount of our loan agreements and public debt securities currently include financial covenants. Some covenants impose financial ratios that must be maintained, others impose restrictions in respect of certain transactions, including restrictions in respect of indebtedness, pledging of assets and material asset disposals. A breach of financial or other covenants in existing debt facilities, if not resolved by means such as obtaining a waiver from the relevant lender and/or making amendments to debt facilities, could trigger a default under our obligations.
As of 31 December 2017, we were in compliance with lenders’ requirements under covenants.
Nevertheless, in case financial markets or economic situation on the markets, where we operate, deteriorate in the future, we may not comply with relevant covenants. In case of possible breach we will apply best efforts to obtain all necessary waivers or standstill letters. We do not expect the occurrence of such events in the near future.
Some of our loans and borrowings are subject to variable rates of interest. Accordingly, we remain subject to interest rate risk resulting from fluctuations in the relevant reference rates for such debt. Some loan agreements contain a right of creditors at its sole discretion to change interest rates including in case of change of credit indicators by the Central Bank of Russia and in some other cases.
The increase in such interest rates will result in an increase in our interest expense and could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or prospects.
Our products’ prices as well as our costs are nominated both in Roubles and in other currencies (generally, in U.S. dollars and euro).We hedge our net investment in operations located in the United States and Oman against foreign currency risks using U.S. dollar denominated liabilities. Gains or losses on the hedging instruments relating to the effective portion of the hedge are recognised as other comprehensive income while any gains or losses relating to the ineffective portion are recognised in the income statement. In 2017, we incurred foreign exchange gain from spot rate changes in the total amount of $45 million, including $ 28 million recognised in the income statement and $18 million (before income tax) recognised in the statement of comprehensive income.
Also TMK is exposed to currency risk on the borrowings that are denominated in currencies other than the functional currencies of the respective TMK’s members. The currencies in which these transactions are denominated are primarily Rubles, US dollars and euro. As of December 31, 2017, 46% of our loans were denominated in U.S. dollar. In this regards, as well as taking into consideration continuing volatility of the Rouble against U.S. dollar, the risk of losses owing to the Rouble devaluation remains sufficiently high. Depreciation of the Rouble against the U.S. dollar could adversely affect our net profit as coherent losses will be reflected in our consolidated income statements. Nevertheless, TMK is partly secured from currency risks as foreign currency denominated sales occasionally are used to cover repayment of foreign currency denominated borrowings.
A significant amount of our production activities are located in Russia, and a majority of direct costs are incurred in Roubles. We tend to experience inflation-driven increases in certain costs, such as raw material costs, transportation costs, energy costs and salaries that are linked to the general price level in Russia. In 2017, inflation in Russia decreased to 2.1% as compared to 5.4% in 2016. In spite of the measures of the Russian government to contain inflation, growth of inflation rates may be significant in the short-term outlook. We may not be able to increase the prices sufficiently in order to preserve existing operating margins.
Inflation rates in the United States, with respect to our American division operations, are historically much lower than in Russia. In 2017, inflation in the United States was 2.1% and remained at the level of the previous year
High rates of inflation, especially in Russia, could increase our costs, decrease our operating margins and adversely affect our business and financial position.
Our subsidiaries make significant tax and non-budgetary funds payments, in particular, profit tax, VAT, property tax and payments to social security funds. Changes in tax legislation could lead to an increase in tax payments and, consequently, to a lowering of financial results. As significant part of the operations is located in Russia, the main risks relate to changes in the legislation of the Russian tax system. The Russian Government continually reviews the Russian tax legislation. The new laws generally reduce the number of taxes and the overall tax burden on business while simplifying tax legislation. Nevertheless, should the Russian taxation system suffer any changes related to increasing of tax rates, this could adversely affect our business.
Moreover, the Russian oil industry is subject to substantial taxes, including significant resources production taxes and significant export customs duties. Changes to the tax regime and customs duties rates may adversely affect the level of oil and gas exploration and development in Russia, which can adversely affect the demand for our products in Russia.
We meet the requirements of national environmental laws at our industrial capacities location areas: the directives and regulations of Russian, the United States, the European Union, Romanian, Kazakhstan and Omani legislation.
The main ecological-and-economical risks of our Russian plants are related to changes and tightening of the Russian environmental protection laws. Environmental legislation in Russia is constantly developing. The imposition of a new law and regulation system may require further expenditures to install new technological and waste disposal equipment, pollution and wastewater control equipment, as well as will lead to growth of the rate of payments for negative impact on the environment. It is expected that compliance with the regulations will be accompanied by stricter control by state monitoring authorities.
We estimate that the environmental legislation of the European Union and the United States, Romania, Kazakhstan and Oman will not undergo any material changes in the near future. Nevertheless, if such changes arise, the cost of compliance with new requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our production capacities are subject to equipment failures and to the risk of catastrophic loss due to unanticipated events, such as fires, explosions and adverse weather conditions. Our manufacturing processes depend on critical pieces of steel-making and pipe-making equipment. Such equipment may, on occasion, be out of service as a result of unanticipated failures, which could require us to close part or all of the relevant production facility or cause us to reduce production on one or more of our production lines.
Any interruption in production capability may require us to make significant and unanticipated capital expenditures to effect repairs, which could have a negative effect on our profitability and cash flows.
Any recoveries under insurance coverage that we may obtain may not offset the lost revenues or increased costs resulting from a disruption of our operations. A sustained disruption to our business could also result in delays to or cancellations of customer orders and contractual penalties, which may also negatively impact our reputation among our customers. Any or all of these occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
We maintain insurance against losses that may arise in case of property damage including business interruption insurance, accidents, transportation of goods. We also maintain corporate product liability and directors and officers liability insurance policies.
We maintain obligatory insurance policies required by law and provide employees with medical insurance as part of our compensation arrangements with our employees.
Nevertheless, we do not carry insurance against all potential risks and losses, and our insurance might be inadequate to cover all of our losses or liabilities or may not be available on commercially reasonable terms.
Our Russian subsidiaries are in many regions the largest employers in the cities in which they operate, such as Volzhsky, Taganrog, Kamensk-Uralsky and Polevskoy. While we do not have any specific legal social obligations or responsibilities with respect to these regions, the ability to effect alterations in the number our employees may nevertheless be subject to political and social considerations. Any inability to make planned reductions in the number of employees or other changes to operations in such regions could have an adverse effect on the results of operations and prospects.
Competition for skilled labor in the steel pipe industry remains relatively intense, and labor costs continue to increase moderately, particularly in the CIS, Eastern Europe and the United States. We expect the demand and, hence, costs for skilled engineers and operators will continue to increase, reflecting the significant demand from other metallurgical companies and other industries. Continual high demand for skilled labor and continued increases in labor costs could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial position and results of operations.